GAMUT I-16
GYNECOMASTIA


PHYSIOLOGICAL
*1. Idiopathic 
2. Neonatal (high placental estrogens)
3. Pubertal (excess of estradiol over testosterone)
*4. Senile  (falling androgen and rising estrogen levels with age)


PHARMACOLOGICAL
1. Anti-androgens (eg, spironolactone)
2. Antidepressants, tricyclic
*3. Chemotherapy drugs (producing testicular damage)
4. Digitalis (binds to estrogen receptors)
*5. Estrogen (esp. in prostate cancer treatment)
6. Methyldopa
7. Phenothiazines
8. Reserpine


PATHOLOGICAL
1. Bronchogenic carcinoma (secreting HCG)
2. Cirrhosis (increased conversion of androgens to estrogens)
3. Estrogen secreting tumor (eg, adrenal tumor; Leydig cell tumor)
4. Hyperthyroidism
*5. Hypogonadism (eg, castration; Klinefelter S. {XXY S.})
6. Hypopituitarism (incl. acromegaly)
7. Hypothyroidism, infantile (cretinism)
8. Testicular feminization (androgen insensitivity)
9. Testicular tumor (eg, teratoma secreting HCG)


SYNDROMES
1. Cowden S. (multiple hamartoma S.)
2. Gorlin S. (nevoid basal cell carcinoma S.)
3. Paraneoplastic syndromes


* Common.




References