GAMUT J-1-S
DISEASES COMMON TO THE TROPICS AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES - BASED ON BODY SYSTEM AND ORGAN INVOLVED*


ABNORMALITIES OF THE ALIMENTARY TRACT

ESOPHAGUS
1. Chagas' disease (megaesophagus)
2. Fungus diseases (esp. candidiasis {moniliasis})
3. Malignant disease (esp. carcinoma)
4. Schistosomiasis (varices)
5. Tuberculosis
6. Other (eg, corrosive strictures; achalasia; hiatus hernia)


STOMACH
1. Anisakiasis
2. Ascariasis
3. Fungus diseases (esp. candidiasis {moniliasis})
4. Malignant disease (incl. carcinoma; Burkitt's lymphoma; Kaposi sarcoma)
5. Schistosomiasis
6. Strongyloidiasis
7. Tuberculosis
8. Other (eg, peptic ulcer disease; gastric outlet obstruction; hiatus hernia)


DUODENUM AND SMALL BOWEL
1. Amebiasis
2. Anisakiasis
3. Angiostrongyliasis costaricensis
4. Ascariasis
5. Chagas' disease
6. Fungus diseases (esp. candidiasis {moniliasis}; histoplasmosis)
7. Giardiasis
8. Hookworm disease
9. Intestinal capillariasis
10. Kwashiorkor; malnutrition
11. Malignant disease (incl. carcinoma; lymphoma; Burkitt's lymphoma, Kaposi sarcoma)
12. Salmonella infections
13. Schistosomiasis
14. Strongyloidiasis
15. Taeniasis saginata (beef tapeworm)
16. Tropical sprue
17. Tuberculosis
18. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever
19. Other (eg, intestinal obstruction; intussusception; small bowel volvulus, hernia; obstructed hernia)


COLON
1. Amebiasis
2. Angiostrongyliasis costaricensis
3. Ascariasis
4. Bacillary dysentery (shigellosis)
5. Chagas' disease (megacolon)
6. Fungus diseases (also actinomycosis)
7. Helminthoma
8. Lymphogranuloma venereum
9. Malignant disease (esp. carcinoma)
10. Salmonella infections
11. Schistosomiasis
12. Strongyloidiasis
13. Trichuriasis
14. Tuberculosis
15. Other (eg, intestinal obstruction; intussusception; sigmoid volvulus; hernia; obstructed hernia; polyps)


RECTUM AND ANUS
1. Amebiasis
2. Bacillary dysentery (shigellosis)
3. Chagas' disease
4. Lymphogranuloma venereum
5. Malignant disease (esp. carcinoma)
6. Schistosomiasis
7. Trichuriasis
8. Tuberculosis
9. Other (eg, hemorrhoids; fissures; strictures; rectovaginal fistulae)


LIVER
1. Amebiasis
2. Ascariasis
3. Clonorchiasis; opisthorchiasis; fascioliasis
4. Fungus diseases (esp. histoplasmosis); actinomycosis
5. Hydatid disease
6. Kwashiorkor
7. Leishmaniasis (kala-azar)
8. Malignant disease (esp. hepatoma; cholangiocarcinoma; Burkitt's lymphoma)
9. Pentastomiasis (Armillifer infection)
10. Schistosomiasis
11. Toxoplasmosis
12. Tuberculosis
13. Other (eg, cirrhosis; portal hypertension)


GALLBLADDER AND BILIARY TRACT
1. Ascariasis
2. Biliary calculi (esp. in hemoglobinopathies)
3. Clonorchiasis; opisthorchiasis; fascioliasis
4. Oriental cholangiohepatitis


JAUNDICE
1. Ascariasis (esp. in children)
2. Calculi
3. Cirrhosis
4. Clonorchiasis; opisthorchiasis; fascioliasis
5. Hydatid disease
6. Oriental cholangiohepatitis


SPLEEN
1. Hemoglobinopathies (esp. sickle cell disease; thalassemia)
2. Hydatid disease
3. Leishmaniasis (kala-azar)
4. Malaria
5. Malignant disease (esp. lymphoma G)
6. Melioidosis
7. Pentastomiasis (Armillifer infection)
8. Schistosomiasis
9. Tropical splenic abscess
10. Tropical splenomegaly
11. Tuberculosis
12. Typhoid and paratyphoid fever


PANCREAS
1. Carcinoma
2. Pancreatitis
3. Pancreatic lithiasis



RESPIRATORY TRACT

NASOPHARYNX, MOUTH, HYPOPHARYNX, AND TRACHEA
1. Fungus diseases (esp. zygomycosis {mucormycosis}; phycomycosis; rhinosporidiosis; rhinoentomophthoromycosis)
2. Malignant disease (eg, postnasal carcinoma; Burkitt's lymphoma)
3. Noma (cancrum oris)
4. Rhinoscleroma (scleroma)
5. Yaws; syphilis


LUNGS
1. Amebiasis
2. Ascariasis
3. Capillariasis philippinensis
4. Fungus diseases
5. Gnathostomiasis
6. Hookworm disease
7. Hydatid disease
8. Malaria (pulmonary edema and shock lung)
9. Malignant disease, primary or metastatic carcinoma; Kaposi sarcoma
10. Melioidosis
11. Paragonimiasis
12. Plague
13. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, cytomegalovirus, and other opportunistic infections (esp. in AIDS)
14. Pentastomiasis (Armillifer infection)
15. Schistosomiasis
16. Strongyloidiasis
17. Tropical pulmonary eosinophilia (filarial)
18. Tuberculosis; atypical mycobacterial infections
19. Other (eg, bronchiectasis; unusual pneumonias-esp. measles; whooping cough; blackfat lipid pneumonia)


MEDIASTINUM, PLEURA, AND CHEST WALL
1. Amebiasis
2. Cysticercosis
3. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm infection)
4. Fungus diseases; actinomycosis; nocardiosis
5. Hydatid disease
6. Malignant disease (incl. Burkitt's lymphoma); metastatic disease
7. Melioidosis
8. Paragonimiasis
9. Plague
10. Pentastomiasis (Armillifer infection)
11. Tuberculosis; atypical mycobacterial infection
12. Other (eg, rib and pleural lesions)



CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM

HEART
1. Amebiasis (pneumopericardium after abscess rupture)
2. Aneurysms (subvalvular or idiopathic aortic)
3. Aortitis, idiopathic
4. Burkitt's lymphoma
5. Cardiomegaly (idiopathic; puerperal)
6. Chagas' disease
7. Cysticercosis
8. Endomyocardial fibrosis (African myocardiopathy)
9. Hemoglobinopathies
10. Hydatid disease
11. Hypertension, systemic or pulmonary (eg, secondary to schistosomiasis)
12. Kwashiorkor; malnutrition
13. Tuberculosis


PERICARDIAL EFFUSION
1. Amebiasis
2. Hemoglobinopathies
3. Hydatid disease
4. Kaposi sarcoma
5. Malignant disease
6. Rheumatic fever
7. Tuberculosis
8. Viral disease


AORTA, PULMONARY ARTERIES, PERIPHERAL ARTERIES AND VEINS
1. Aneurysms
2. Idiopathic arteritis (Takayasu arteritis)
3. Peripheral vascular disease; idiopathic gangrene; varicose veins
4. Pulmonary embolus and infarction
5. Pulmonary hypertension (secondary to schistosomiasis)



GENITOURINARY TRACT

KIDNEYS
1. Calculi
2. Filariasis (with chyluria)
3. Fungus diseases (esp. candidiasis {moniliasis})
4. Hemoglobinopathies (eg, sickle cell disease with papillary necrosis)
5. Hydatid disease
6. Idiopathic arteritis (Takayasu arteritis)
7. Malaria
8. Malignant disease (incl. Burkitt's lymphoma)
9. Schistosomiasis
10. Tuberculosis


URETERS AND BLADDER
1. Calculi; calcification of ureteral or bladder wall (eg, schistosomiasis; tuberculosis)
2. Fungus diseases G (esp. candidiasis {moniliasis})
3. Hydatid disease
4. Malignant disease
5. Schistosomiasis
6. Tuberculosis


URETHRA, VAGINA, PENIS, SEMINAL VESICLES, AND PROSTATE
1. Amebiasis
2. Filariasis; elephantiasis
3. Lymphogranuloma venereum
4. Malignant disease
5. Rectovaginal and vesicovaginal fistulae
6. Schistosomiasis
7. Tuberculosis
8. Urethral strictures



CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

BRAIN AND MENINGES
1. African trypanosomiasis
2. Amebiasis
3. Angiostrongyliasis cantonensis
4. Cysticercosis
5. Fungus diseases (esp. cryptococcosis {torulosis})
6. Hydatid disease
7. Malaria
8. Malignant disease
9. Neurotrichinosis
10. Paragonimiasis
11. Schistosomiasis
12. Sparganosis
13. Toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus, other opportunistic infections (esp. in AIDS)
14. Tuberculosis


SPINE, INCLUDING PARAPLEGIA
1. Brucellosis
2. Cysticercosis
3. Fungus diseases
4. Hemoglobinopathies
5. Hydatid disease
6. Malignant disease (incl. Burkitt's lymphoma)
7. Schistosomiasis
8. Spondylitis (eg, typhoid; pyogenic)
9. Syphilis
10. Tetanus
11. Tuberculosis


PERIPHERAL NERVES
1. Leprosy



SOFT TISSUES

SOFT TISSUE NODULES WITHOUT OBVIOUS CALCIFICATION
1. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm infection)
2. Filariasis (esp. onchocerciasis)
3. Fungus diseases; mycetoma
4. Gnathostomiasis
5. Hydatid disease
6. Leishmaniasis (kala-azar)
7. Leprosy
8. Malignant disease (esp. Burkitt's lymphoma; Kaposi sarcoma)
9. Sparganosis
10. Tropical ulcer
11. Tuberculosis
12. Tumoral calcinosis
13. Yaws; syphilis


CALCIFICATIONS IN THE SOFT TISSUES
1. Cysticercosis
2. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm infection)
3. Filariasis
4. Hydatid disease
5. Kikuya bursa  (Africa)
6. Loiasis (Loa loa)
7. Medicinal injection sites
8. Onchocerciasis
9. Pentastomiasis (Armillifer infection)
10. Sarcocystis
11. Tuberculosis (lymph nodes)
12. Tumoral calcinosis


OTHER SOFT TISSUE ABNORMALITIES (eg, edema, inflammation, ulceration, malignancy)
1. Ainhum
2. Amebiasis
3. Cysticercosis
4. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm infection)
5. Filariasis; elephantiasis
6. Fungus diseases; mycetoma
7. Gnathostomiasis
8. Hydatid disease
9. Leprosy
10. Loiasis (Loa loa)
11. Lymphogranuloma venereum
12. Malignant disease (eg, Kaposi sarcoma)
13. Melioidosis
14. Noma (cancrum oris)
15. Onchocerciasis
16. Rhinoscleroma (scleroma)
17. Trauma
18. Tropical pyomyositis
19. Tropical ulcer; Buruli ulcer
20. Tumoral calcinosis
21. Yaws; endemic syphilis


LYMPHADENOPATHY (In addition to all the usual "nontropical" diseases, consider the following)
1. Brucellosis
2. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm infection)
3. Filariasis
4. Fungus diseases
5. Leishmaniasis (kala-azar)
6. Leprosy
7. Lymphogranuloma venereum
8. Malignant disease (incl. Burkitt's lymphoma; Kaposi sarcoma)
9. Plague
10. Tuberculosis; atypical mycobacterial infection
11. Yaws



SKELETON

SKULL, FACIAL BONES, AND SPINE
1. Brucellosis
2. Cysticercosis
3. Fluorosis
4. Fungus diseases; mycetoma
5. Hemoglobinopathies
6. Hydatid disease
7. Leprosy
8. Malignant disease (incl. Burkitt's lymphoma)
9. Noma (cancrum oris)
10. Rhinoscleroma (scleroma)
11. Spondylitis (eg, typhoid; pyogenic)
12. Tetanus
13. Tuberculosis
14. Yaws; endemic syphilis


LONG BONES, HANDS, AND FEET
1. Ainhum
2. Brucellosis
3. Fungus diseases (esp. mycetoma)
4. Hemoglobinopathies
5. Hydatid disease
6. Leprosy
7. Malignant disease (incl. Burkitt's lymphoma; Kaposi sarcoma)
8. Melioidosis
9. Osteomyelitis (eg, Salmonella; other pyogenic)
10. Smallpox (residual effects only)
11. Tropical ulcer
12. Tuberculosis
13. Yaws; endemic syphilis
14. Others (eg, anomalies; carpal fusions; congenital hip dislocation; tibia vara)


ARTHRITIS AND OTHER JOINT DISEASES (acute, chronic, neuropathic)
1. Brucellosis
2. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm infection)
3. Filariasis
4. Fungus diseases
5. Hemoglobinopathies
6. Hydatid disease
7. Leprosy
8. Malignant disease (eg, synovial sarcoma)
9. Smallpox (residual effects only)
10. Tropical "arthritis"
11. Tuberculosis
12. Tumoral calcinosis
13. Yaws; syphilis


* When searching for the differential diagnosis of an abnormal finding on a radiograph of a patient or visitor from the tropics, it will be helpful to consult this list, which refers to the major parasitic, infectious, neoplastic, and other diseases that affect specific organs or systems. When used in conjunction with Gamut J-2, which details the geographic distribution of these diseases, a tentative diagnosis may often be suggested in such a patient.




References